Monthly Archives: November 2020

Rainbow Lorikeet

I painted this yesterday in acrylics on a 30cm x 23.5cm canvas (odd dimensions but no problem!).

A friend of mine has a few of these colourful birds visit his garden in Queensland, where the species is from, and regularly posts photos of them on FB/Instagram.

I saw the birds close up while visiting Lisbon Zoo last year. The zoo was fairly quiet but I had to wait in the aviary till the people in front of me finished watching the birds feed. I was then able to take a few reference photos.

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How I Paint – 12. Reference Videos

Cherry-throated Tanager

I began to paint regularly, in water colour, a couple of years ago. In order to brush up on aspects of the art I would, and still do, look at some artists’ videos in You Tube. While there is no substitute for learning with a teacher I found the videos useful for specific techniques.

If I lived somewhere where I could find a watercolour or acrylic teacher I would certainly invest in lessons. I recommend this approach as it eliminates uncertainties and helps to develop style with confidence.

Even now I watch videos just because I enjoy watching each artist paint their subjects in their style. I find that one or two have similar styles, both in painting and in teaching, but there is usually always a tip to take away from one or another.

While I admit that this is not 100% complete it acts as a guide to finding some worthwhile videos. Here is my list of links that I hope is of value:

Artist Videos

Name / Link Specialisation Medium

Charles Evans Landscapes. Water colour and acrylic

Tim Wilmot Landscapes. Watercolour

Alan Owen Landscapes. Watercolour

Geoff Kersey Landscapes. Watercolour

Nitin Singh Landscapes. Watercolour

Louise De Masi Nature Watercolour

Eric Yi Lin / Watercolour Cafe Landscapes Watercolour

Frank Clarke Landscapes. Watercolour and acrylic

Anna Mason Botanical / Nature Watercolour

Billy Showell Botanical Watercolour

Julia Trickey Botanical Watercolour

History of Watercolours

Well worth reading for anyone interested in water colour painting.

Supplier Videos

Winsor & Newton

Winsor and Newton is a supplier of artists materials for students and professionals. Very high quality.

Daler Rowney

Winsor and Newton is a supplier of artists materials for students and professionals. Very high quality.


One of the most respected makers of water colour papers.


Another premium quality paper manufacturer that I use for photography as well as for water colour.

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Floral watercolours


I have learned a lot about botanical illustration this week and congratulate those who have the patience and dexterity to master it. Watercolour takes some skill to produce good results but botanical art is a specialism that requires a lot more effort, mastery and knowledge.

What is botanical illustration

Botanical illustration is the art of depicting the form, color, and details of plant species, frequently in watercolor paintings. They must be scientifically accurate but often also have an artistic component and may be printed with a botanical description in books, magazines, and other media or sold as a work of art. (Wikipedia)

This definition sets botanical illustration apart from floral art (as I described in an earlier post.)

What I have learned

1. Accuracy. It is essential to work from specimens. Specimens enable measurements to be taken and for minute details to be seen close up. In addition to physical dimensions it is necessary to understand the habitat and environment in which a plant lives thus requiring detailed knowledge and research, often with input or guidance from botanists. In some cases botanical illustrators will work with dried specimens and, through their art, bring them to life on paper.

Ixora chinensis

I have a few Ixora chinensis (Scarlet Jungleflame) bushes in my garden that I plan to paint in an accurate manner.

Flowers with 4, 5 and 6 petals

While looking for suitable specimens I discovered that although most of the tiny flowers have 4 petals, some have 5 or even six. This is a level of detail that would have to be included in botanical illustration. A simple reference to wikipedia did not yield much information about the genus or species so a lot more searching for appropriate reference material would be needed.


Being handy with brush and paints is not enough. To produce an acceptable botanical illustration it is essential to have quality materials, access to information about the subject, the ability to measure components of a plant down to less than a millimetre, and time. In the latter case there is a need to balance the time needed to paint the subject against the time that nature makes available before the subject deteriorates – in the process, changing shape and colour!

I have listed a few of the key skills below:

Paper. Smooth paper is much better than textured paper in order that fine details of a plant or flower can be seen clearly. This means that hot pressed paper is better, the heavier the better so that the paper remains flat.

Paints. A broad range of quality professional paints is ideal since colour matching is more likely straight from the tube or pan rather than the need to mix, which could result in unwanted issues. While working in layers is possible, and necessary, it is better to minimise the number of layers ie to avoid glazing. Hence out-of-the-tube colours are better.

Brushes. To accurately place pigment on paper it is essential that the right sized brushes are used. In addition, good quality brushes will hold water and their point for longer periods.

Good eyes! An eye for detail and the ability to match colours accurately are clearly great assets.

Patience. I heard that it can take up as much as 200 hours to complete a botanical illustration though this will depend on its size (they are usually painted 1:1 so large ferns, for example, will take a very long time to complete).


I enjoy this type of painting but need to get access to decent paper – my stock is exclusively cold-pressed, some lightly textured and some heavily textured. The two paintings above were made on the two types of paper that I currently have in stock. The Gerbera is on a rough paper while the Fresia is on a NOT paper (NOT meaning not smooth).

My supply of some paints is also running low but hopefully when the on-off-on lockdown is over I shall venture out in search of what I need.

Cosmos sulphureus
Cosmos bipinnatus

The two Cosmos paintings were done on a rough textured paper. The sulphureus grows wild where I live so I transferred a few plants from the central reservation of our avenue to my garden. Now seeding prolifically. The bipinnatus is a mexican species. Unfortunately the paper was marked so I tried, not very well, to clean it up.

More floral painting to do but I shall work on an acrylic bird painting first.

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Bauhinia purpurea

Bauhinia purpurea

The Bauhinia is a tree found in Asia and South America and, although found pretty well throughout Brazil, always reminds me of Hong Kong where I lived for ten years. After the handover of the territory to China in 1997 the new Hong Kong 🇭🇰 flag features the bauhinia.

The B. purpurea is native to India, where I also lived for a few years. Bauhinias are also known as Orchid trees and, because of the shape of their leaves, butterfly trees or camel’s foot.

The watercolour painting was made on 30 cm x 30 cm paper. I may do more of these as they are such beautiful flowers.

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How I paint – 10. Terminology

Head of a Hoatzin, Amazonas, Brazil

This glossary has been made to define or explain some of the many terms that I may have used in this How I Paint series. It is by no means complete but I may add to it, or refine some explanations, in the future.

100% rag
This term applies to water colour paper and means that the paper is made from 100% cotton. Paper made in this way is higher quality than wood-based (cellulose) papers. The paper is made by shredding cotton rag, hence the name, and pressing it in moulds to form sheets of paper (refer to “paper weight“).

140lb, 300lb, 96gsm, 300gsm etc.
Relating to paper – see paper weight.

2B, 2H, 3B etc.
Relating to pencils – see hardness

Acid-free refers to papers without acid in the pulp when manufactured. High acidity papers degrade quickly. Acid free paper is commonly used for fine art prints and limited edition printing, as well as for permanent records where contact with paper acidity could harm the documents.


A composition that is balanced will be pleasing to the eye of the viewer. Colours that are out of balance will not be harmonious and will create distractions or stress in the scene. Elements or objects within a scene that do not guide the eye around the painting will also create disharmony.


Essentially the same as wet-in-wet (refer to . A colour is laid down and, while still wet, another colour is laid into the wet paint.

Cold Press

see NOT


The lay-out of paintings and drawings is composed in a way to ensure the result is pleasing to the eye and draws the viewer into the subject of the painting. There are a few well-documented “rules” of composition that have evolved over centuries. These include: framing, balance, leading lines, patterns and symmetry, the golden ratio and the rule of thirds.

Dry brush

Dry brush technique involves applying paint in a manner that the brush, loaded with pigment but not containing an excessive amount of water, passes over dry paper in a manner that leaves dry unpainted paper.

Externally sized 
see sizing

The metal band that connects the handle and the bristles of a paint brush.


Shape of brush used to create soft edges, blend colours, having the shape of a flower petal or leaf, between a flat and a round. I occasionally use a filbert in watercolour painting but do so more often in acrylics.

Flat wash

A flat wash is a means of applying an even layer of colour to an area of paper. It is done usually by applying paint at the top of the area to be covered, then painting in horizontal strokes, each below the previous, until the area is covered. Care is taken to ensure the entire area has the same amount of pigment. This is particularly useful in painting skies.


This relates to the use of elements in the scene being used to frame, or focus attention on, the main subject in the picture. Examples are: lines of trees, branches.


Similar to layering (refer below) glazing is the application of another layer of paint on one that has already dried, but using a different colour. This is often done to cool or warm an area, or to make it darker.

Golden ratio

This is a famous compositional tool, frequently seen in nature, that has been used and studied for centuries. It is used in painting and photography for establishing the ideal placement of objects in a scene. There are a few examples of its use in photographs by Henri Cartier Bresson, though I am not sure that he specifically applied it or, more likely, had a natural eye for this composition..

Golden Ratio

Graduated wash

A graduated wash is a wash of colour that has a gradual change in value. It usually begins with a dark value of pigment with the paint mixture gradually diluted from top to bottom.


Some pigments are prone to causing granulation, usually on rough paper, as the particles in the pigment settle in the hollows of the paper. Not all pigments do this, and those based on dyes rather than minerals will not do so, but the effects can be useful for adding texture to a scene.

Hard Edge

A hard edge is one in which the colour in an area of a painting stops suddenly, leaving a clearly visible edge. This is useful for certain objects in a scene. Hard edges may be avoided by subtly blending the pigment to create a soft edge. Hard edges are usually used in the foreground of a scene.

The hardness of a pencil lead. H stands for ‘hard’, while B stands for ‘black’. The number before the H or B denotes the degree of hardness, so a 5H is very hard, while a 5B is very soft. HB is in the middle. I tend to use HB or B when preparing for a painting but will use the full range if I am doing pencil-only drawings.

High White/Bright White Watercolour Paper
Being traditionally off-white/creamy in colour, some manufacturers have produced a whiter shade of some of their more popular papers, which can give colours more vibrancy.   These whiter shades can vary in degree and under scrutiny may still appear off white.  This is due to the bleaching agents used differ from one paper to another.

see hardness

Hot Pressed
Hot pressed (HP) watercolour paper is pressed under heat, resulting in a very smooth surface. It is an excellent choice for mixed ink and watercolour techniques as well as for subjects where a rough surface is likely to detract from the end product eg botanical and bird painting.

“Hue” means colour and indicates that a modern pigment has been used instead of the traditional one. For example, ‘Cadmium Red Pale Hue’ in Cotman Water Colour is a ‘colour of cadmium red pale’. A hue colour is not necessarily inferior.

A traditional English  measurement of paper size, which is equal to 30″ x 22″.

Internally sized
see sizing


Watercolour is a transparent medium that allows pigment to be laid in layers, similar to placing sheets of coloured glass on top of each other, to make the resulting hue darker.

Leading Lines

Leading lines are created by placing elements in a painting in a way that leads the eye from one point to another, around the scene, to the point of focus.


If too much pigment is placed in an area it is possible to “lift” out some of that colour by dampening the affected area and lifting out the some colour with a very damp, almost dry brush that will soak up the pigment. Depending how quickly this action is taken after applying the pigment in the first instance almost all of the pigment can be removed.


The ability of paper or colour to resist fading or yellowing when exposed to light.

Lost and Found

A lost and found technique takes advantage of soft edges and hard edges to place objects as part of the scene. A hard edge only may make an object stand out too much while a soft edge only may make the object appear irrelevant in the scene, The “lost” elements of an object may form part of the scene and, in itself, be invisible while the “found” elements give the object context and make the object make sense. Areas of equal tonal value lend themselves to being “lost” and can be allowed to blend.


A finish with little or no sheen that absorbs light.

Mould made

Mould made papers simulate the handmade process on a mechanised paper machine. These papers can be mistaken for handmade but there are distinct differences. Mould made paper combines the consistent quality of machine made papers, but with the individual character of handmade papers. They are of particular interest to artists because of their increased surface strength and beautiful surface texture.

Negative Painting

Where an area of a painting needs to be left without colour, or where an object sits in an area of background, it is practical to paint around it and to deal with the details in that area at a later stage. This occurs often where there are figures in a landscape or there are details on a light value such as stamens in a flower. In such cases it is usual to paint around that area ignorer to leave it unpainted. This is negative painting. Some artists make use of masking fluid, especially for fine detail work, to avoid covering an area with pigment.

NOT (or cold-pressed)

NOT watercolor paper has a slightly textured surface, somewhere in between rough and hot-pressed paper. It’s the paper used most often by watercolour artists for landscapes. The paper is made without the application of heat.

Paper weight 

The thickness of watercolor paper is indicated by its weight, measured either in grams per square metre (gsm) or pounds per ream (lb). The standard machine weights are 190 gsm (90 lb), 300 gsm (140 lb), 356 gsm (260 lb), and 638 gsm (300 lb). Paper less than 356 gsm (260 lb) should stretched before use, otherwise it’s likely to warp.


As our eyes naturally search for patterns in a landscape it is useful to add patterns to a scene to help lead the eye around a scene, or to help ensure there is a degree of balance.

pH neutral

As with acid-free papers, a paper that is pH neutral will tend not to discolor with age.

Primed (canvas)

Canvas has had a primer applied to it, which prepares the surface for being painted on. Primed canvases do not need to be primed again before use.

Proportion and Perspective

The process of translating what we see, in 3D, to a flat sheet of paper (2D) requires the application of perspective. There are several methods but each uses lines of sight on which to place objects so that they appear as we see them – large up close, small in the distance. Proportion is an element of this since objects closer to us appear larger but get small as they go further into the distance.


Rough watercolor paper has a prominent tooth, or textured surface. This creates a grainy effect as pools of water collect in the indentations in the paper.

Rule of Thirds

One of the most important tools of composition is the Rule of Thirds which uses placement of subject matter in a manner that helps our brains make sense of what our eyes see, while keeping the scene balanced. A scene is divided into thirds both horizontally and vertically and the key element, ie the subject of the composition, is placed on one intersections. Placing an object centrally or to one side can create imbalance and stress in a painting.


This technique is almost self-explanatory. It employs the use of a damp brush, usually a hard bristle brush, to remove pigment from an area of a painting by gently scrubbing.


Sizing refers to the treatment of paper that gives it resistance to the penetration liquids (particularly water) or vapors. Papers are traditionally sized with gelatine. The amount of sizing determines the amount of color the paper takes into its structure. Heavier sizing allows more color to stay on the surface and allows easier reworking of the paint. Internally sized paper has the sizing added in the vat before the paper is made. Tub sized (or externally sized) papers are soaked in a sizing bath after the paper is made. Tub sized paper is the preferred choice of watercolorists. A paper that is too heavily sized can resist your brush strokes. To remedy this sponge your paper with clear water once or twice. This will eliminate some of the surface sizing and make the surface more receptive. Papers that are stretched lose any excess sizing in the streching process.

Soft Edge

A soft edge in a painting is one in which the pigment has been blended with adjacent hues to create a blurred effect. Soft edges are usually applied in the background of a scene or where an object is not required to attract attention.


Spattering is the application of paint by throwing or flicking drops of paint from a brush onto paper to create a random pattern of splash marks. A toothbrush can be use to spray fine drops of paint.


In order to prevent buckling of paper after being wet, particularly with lighter weight papers, ie 300 gm weight, it is useful to stretch the paper by taping it to a board. There are two ways to stretch paper: the quick and easy method and the full method. The quick and easy way is to tape a sheet of paper onto board with masking tape. This will reduce the amount of buckling / cockling but has less impact on lighter weight papers. The more complete method requires that the paper is soaked in water (in a bath or shower tray) and then taped to a board with gummed paper and leave to dry before painting.

Traditional White Watercolour Paper

Traditional white in watercolour paper is a creamy off-white colour, and has been used for hundreds of years and is the go-to paper when one thinks of watercolour painting.  It has slightly aged/antique white colour as used by artists such as John Varley and William Turner. 


A deliberate design or pattern made in the paper, usually bearing the logo of the manufacturer Used to show that the paper is authentic.

Wet in wet

Colours need not be mixed on the palette before application. In many cases it is best to mix two (or even three) colours together while the paint is still wet. Hence the term wet in wet or wet on wet.

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How I Paint – 11. Art Never Left Me.

A couple of loosely painted Tanagers from my journal

This is the last in my series of How I Paint. I shall publish a glossary of terminology later today and a list of useful links in the next few days.

I thought I would conclude the series with a reflection on how I started painting and how I returned to this love of art after a fairly extensive interlude.

Children, now, are encouraged at home and at school to draw, starting with colourful crayons or finger paints before moving to pencils or brushes. These simple tools serve to ignite an innate creativity in the minds of children or, for those less naturally creative, to provide a means to concentrate or channel emotions in some way.

I have no recollection of such a phase but I remember two things that possibly influenced me into the world of art. At the age of about 8 years I remember a teacher banning me from participating in an art project (a Wind in the Willows diorama) because she had (mistakenly) decided I was talking instead of working. I was miffed but she had no idea how her action could imprint itself so strongly on the mind of a young child. I wanted to participate. Making and painting things was fun and I enjoyed it. The second thing that occurred, at the same junior school, was in my final year. At home, one Sunday, I had made a drawing of a chimpanzee face that I decided to show to my teacher at school next day. He thought it was good, decided to encourage me and gave me a book of African animals to see if I could draw a gazelle. I have no idea if the drawing was any good but I was grateful to Mr McDonald for his encouragement.

Thankfully teaching methods have improved since those days so I expect there are more teachers like Mr McDonald than there are of that nameless other teacher.

My school art folder

In secondary school I enjoyed art and went through the various stages of learning to work with paint, coloured paper, clay and scratch boards – all designed to illicit interest in creativity. I have to say that my interest was quite strong, could have been stronger, and ought to have produced better results. I was not particularly gifted but I was keen.

One of the other classes at school that I enjoyed was Technical Drawing. This was a subject that has now been overtaken by technology – to draw or design an object in a way that all sides of the object could be seen and measured, and a 3-D rendering showed what the object might look like. This form of draughtsmanship was useful for creating everything from car parts to large-scale engineering products and even architecture, all now done on computer.

It was this skill’s latter application that gave me a desire to become an architect. I merged the painting and technical drawing skills into a love of designing houses. One of my designs, made at age 17, was actually built in Italy, though I received no money for this project as it was for a family friend.

Daffodil study in pencil (1969)

My school day art focussed on pencil and watercolour though I did a few oils.

Sadly my grades at school were not good enough to get into architecture at university, my art skills were not good enough to get me into the art school of my choice, so I considered two options: civil engineering or banking. Despite my father being a highly regarded civil engineer, and having spent a couple of summer school breaks working as a student engineer (where I used my draughtsman’s skills a bit), I decided at the last minute to join a British bank that specialised in the Middle East where I had spent time as a child.

In the years working in various parts of the world I frequently used my camera, a tool that I enjoyed using as part of my school art class, but every once in a while I painted. However, it was not until a couple of years ago, having retired from banking and having taken a step back from my consulting business, that I took up brush and paint with more seriousness.

While some things aspects of painting remained in my brain I needed to practice. The internet, and in particular You Tube, were great sources of detailed “how to” videos. I trawled through a number of videos whenever I wanted to get more information about specific techniques. Well worth the effort. I shall compile and publish a list of the most useful videos and artists that I followed.

ATC / ACEO paintings (credit card size)

As far as inspiration is concerned, the biggest motivator for me in my return to painting, after trying at some overworked landscapes, was painting birds. I started with colourful varieties such as Robins, Goldfinches and Chaffinches but quickly realised that these, as subjects, tend to be done to death. So I decided to do Tanagers, my favourite birds, as I had seen quite a few when l was based in the south of Brazil.

Red-necked Tanager in watercolour

Since then I have tried making marks in gouache, pastels and acrylics. I have lots of oil paints but really do not relish the time taken to use them in a painting – acrylics are a much more rewarding way to paint. There is also the newest kid on the block – digital painting. This is fun and has its uses commercially. I use Procreate for iPad though would like to have a more up to date iPad – mine is a few years old and has a cracked screen, but still usable.

King vulture in acrylics

My goals remain: to become competent in watercolour landscapes, to do more acrylic painting and, one day, to do some large scale oil painting.

Golden Trumpet trees, Brazil. Watercolour

What’s Next?

The final part of this series will be my list of reference videos – the videos that I found on You Tube that helped me along the way – which I shall publish next week.

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How I paint – 9. Painting

Sketch of San Giorgio Maggiore from my journal (painted in Venice)

In my last post I wrote about the how I practise before starting a painting. If I paint all day and every day the I don’t need the practice, but if I have had a break to do other things for a while, then I do. In this post I will cover the process of painting that I usually follow, using San Giorgio Maggiore as the subject.

I always use photographs of a scene that I want to paint as a reference for the composition and the colour. The colours used are not really important – the intention is to create an impression of a view rather than to be a slave to the photographic content. In fact it is often better to not follow the colours in photos – but instead to create a mood.

Having practically lived in Venice I have plenty of photographs of the city, including the subject that I chose: San Giorgio Maggiore, which can be seen across the Grand Canal from the Doge’s Palace. San Giorgio Maggiore is a 16th-century Benedictine basilica, on the island of the same name, designed by Palladio.

The facade of the church is white marble, dazzling in bright sunlight, while the tower and adjacent buildings are red or grey bricks. In my painting the sun is shining from the right onto the front of the church, so the left side is in shadow. When painting landscapes it is important to consider the direction of light and to add shadows – even small ones are noticeable. Sometimes it is necessary to invent shadows as long as they are consistent with the overall scene.

Outline sketch

Stage 1 – the drawings

I prepared two drawings of the subject on my paper. One was used to create a tonal value sketch while the other became the final painting.

Stage 2 – Tonal value sketch

Using only black paint and varying amounts of water (more water for light grey, less water for dark grey) I painted in the areas of shadow and neutral areas, leaving the basilica facade white ie unpainted.

Tonal value sketch

The basilica fascade has the lightest tone (white), the windows and deep shadow areas have the darkest and the remaining areas were shades of grey. There should be no more than three grey tones, aside from the white and black extremes, to avoid unnecessary complexity.

In creating this tonal value sketch I mixed the black paint (I don’t use black in my paintings but I do for making the tone value sketches) with lots of water to create the lightest grey. The easiest way to apply this tone is to painting all areas except the front of the basilica, the sky, and the top of the tower. I used this light grey mix to provide shadows on the white marble areas.

Once this has been done I had two tones: white and light grey. I then painted over the light grey areas after adding a touch of black to the grey mix – making it slightly darker. I didn’t paint all over, just the areas where I wanted the darker tone. This created the mid-tone. The next step was to darken some of the deeper shadow areas with a slightly darker mix of grey. Finally I added a very dark grey/pure black, to the deep shadow areas, to the windows in the shaded areas etc. This provided the dark details.

The tonal value sketch, with 5 tones in total, was now complete and could be used in conjunction with the reference pictures to paint the final image.

Stage 3 – The watercolour painting

Before painting, I wet the entire drawing with clean water but left the basilica facade dry.

Using a blue (I used ultramarine blue) mixed with lots of water I painted a wash over the entire drawing but did not cover the basilica facade which was left white. By varying the intensity of the wash, ie more or less blue pigment, in the sky it was possible to create the illusion of light clouds. These were accentuated by adding a touch of the grey (Paynes Gray) to the underside of each cloud. I had to make sure that this grey was not too wet when it was applied – otherwise “blooms” would be created (more on this later). I didn’t do a particularly good job on the examples that I have replicated here as the paper had started to dry (the climate where I live is hot all day and night for most of the year).

An alternative, and in my opinion better, way to create clouds is to mop out cloud shapes with a clean damp brush before the sky dries.

I could have added a touch of red or yellow or even green to the sky to add drama or simple interest.

The next step was to add a burnt siena wash to the buildings, though not to the facade nor to the upper part of the bell tower which is white (with a light wash of blue from the sky). In place of burnt siena I could have used a red.

The painting was left to dry out completely. Note that the colours dry lighter than they appeared when wet.

First colour wash

Stage 4

In this fourth stage of painting I added more colour to the areas that needed to stand out.

The spire of the tower is actually green while the dome is a grey colour but I decided to apply some artistic license and made them both green. The terracotta roof tiles are darker than the brickwork, about the same colour as the bricks in shadow, so there was an opportunity to provide continuity of colour. Too many colour variations can detract from the final image. Having said that the greens were different! A mistake that I should have corrected.

Main colours added

This is the final version prior to adding the fine details.

The last stage of painting involved adding the shadows and small details, most of which are little more than small grey tones in key areas.

Details added

The reflection in the canal is simple. If the painting had been larger I may have been inclined to add water detail but the edge of the painting left little space to add detail without creating a distraction, though I could have made the buildings smaller.

Another style

I took the opportunity to try a looser style of painting. In this one the steps taken were the same but the way in which I painted was less rigid – I mixed colours on the paper to provide variety of colour within each element. I ought to have been less detailed in the facade too, but will consider that next time.

I painted the sky in a slightly different manner: pretty much as a graduated wash with blue, red and yellow ochre. This have a hazy effect so I added a touch of stronger blue in the top corner, before the rest of the sky was dry, to give the impression of blue sky behind the haze. This helped to balance the painting as the tower drew too much attention.

So, that is how I paint. Big caveat: I am not particularly good at watercolour landscapes. I need to practice and need to get looser.


What’s next?

This is pretty well the last part of this How I Paint series. However, I thought it would be a good idea to add a post about terminology as some of the terms used by painters can be confusing. I also plan to conclude with a post about my own history in getting back into art. So the final two posts will follow in the next two or three weeks – all done by the end of November.